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Title: Manuscripts and Water Quality Data for Watersheds and Lakes in Central NY, 1972-2003
Authors: Bouldin, David
Keywords: Fall Creek
Cayuga Lake
Harford T & R Center
Kashong Creek
NY Finger Lakes
Finger Lakes
N,P and Sediment, Fall Creek
Road Salt
Tompkins Co., NY
Cortland Co., NY
Cayuga Co., NY
Yates Co., NY
Ontario Co., NY
Issue Date: 13-Dec-2005
Abstract: David Bouldin, Emeritus Professor, Crop and Soil Science, Cornell University --- E-mail: --- In 1970 Cornell University received a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to study runoff from land and its impact on water quality. A multidisciplinary team, focused on the lakes and landscapes in central NY, was developed and led by Professor Robert J Young. Since the above project was finished, I have continued to monitor Fall Creek, sub-watersheds in Fall Creek, other tributaries to Cayuga Lake and the aquifers on the Harford T and R center. (intro.doc) --- The appended files describe the results of analysis of over 3000 water samples, 1970- 2003, concerned with land runoff and the lakes in central NY. Major findings follow. References to the appropriate document can be found in the folder "mss" --- Three P fractions were measured: MRP, TDP and TP. MRP is measured on filtered samples without treatment and is presumed to be mostly inorganic P in solution. TDP is measured on filtered samples after oxidation of organic forms of P and hence is total Pin solution. TP is particulate P plus TDP. Usually MRP and TDP are considered the major forms used by algae. (ms1, ms2, ms13, ms14) --- The average TDP in about 1500 samples from Fall Creek was 0.026 mg per liter, loading was about 4400 Kg P or about 0.13 kg/ha/year . About ? was MRP. Total P was about 0.140 mg/liter. Approximate sources of TDP are as follows: 50% from inactive agriculture and forest, the other 50% attributed to human activities of which about half from diffuse sources and half from point sources. MRP concentrations in runoff from 16 subwatersheds, February to April of 1973, varied from 0.006 to 050 mg/l. The TDP in Cayuga Lake ranges from 0.005 to 0.020 mg per liter (ms3, ms4, ms5, ms6, ms7). --- NO3 loading from Fall Creek is about 5 kg/ha /year; this is about 80% of the input of inorganic N in precipitation. This is a consequence of mosaic of sources varying widely in concentration. NO3 loading from 9 subwatersheds in Fall Creek varied from 1 to 7.7 kg/ha/year; no samples containing more than 10 ppm was found. (ms8,ms5,ms9,ms6,ms7,ms10) --- Streams draining wooded areas without human habitations or active agriculture have NO3 concentrations and loadings on the order of 20 % of the inputs of inorganic N from precipitation (~1kg/ha/year). and similar to those found in the Catskill and Hubbard Brook in NY (ms5,ms6,ms7,ms9) --- There are unlikely to be more than a very few small streams in the Cayuga Lake watershed in which the concentration of NO3-N will exceed the 10 ppm public health standard. However aquifers under heavily fertilized fields may contain more than the public health standard. (ms9, ms5) --- Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for Fall Creek did not change statistically during the period 1926-1996 as estimated by annual precipitation input minus stream outflow, indicating that land use changes were not important in influencing ET.(ms_15) --- The most important sampling protocols are the following: Concentrations of constituents in stream water vary seasonally and with flow intensity. This means that a) timing of sampling must be carried out during all seasons and over all flow regimes, b) amounts of various substances such as N, P and sediment transported to lakes and reservoirs are the product of flow multiplied by concentration which means that flow measurements must be made at the same time as samples are taken for analytical determination and c) most of the water leaves the watershed during the 10 to 20 % of the time that highest flows occur; this means that timing of sampling must include frequent sampling during storm events. With respect to TDP, point sources will be most evident under low flow conditions while non- point sources will be most evident under high flow conditions. Loading of non point sources is thus very much dependent on the 10 % to 20% of the time when highest flow conditions occur. --- The most important conclusion I reached about watershed management is the following. Watershed management requires detailed knowledge about the cost of several management options per unit of decrease in loading/ concentration. Our experience was that the various human activities in sub watersheds were correlated with each other. This meant that statistical analysis of correlations between loading of N and P were useless in identifying the management options which would be most beneficial. This also means that commonly used procedures for validating models are useless in terms of developing management strategies . (Ms12)
Related data sets and other items:
Water quality data for Fall Creek (Tompkins County, NY) sampling sites: 1972-1995:
Water quality data for Kashong Creek Watershed (Ontario County and Yates County, NY) sampling sites: 1977-1979:
Water quality data for southern tributaries to Cayuga Lake (Tompkins County, NY): 1987-1989:
Water quality data for well, stream, and seep samples from the Harford Teaching and Research Farm (Cortland County, NY): 1974-1994:
Well Logs for Wells at the Cornell Department of Animal Science Harford Teaching and Research Center:
Appears in Collections:Manuscripts and Water Quality Data
Cayuga Lake Watershed Reports

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
intro.docIntroduction25 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms1_intP.docInterpretation of phosphorus analytical data22.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms2_ANAL.DOCSome Observations Concerning Preparation and Storage of Stream Samples for Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate Analysis6.23 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms3_FCP.docPhosphorus Loss by Stream Transport from a Rural Watershed: Quantities, Processes, and Sources2.95 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms5_BIOG.DOCNitrogen and other constituents in streams draining forested, uninhabited watersheds in the Fall Creek NY drainage basin26.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms6_til1.DOCPhosphorus Concentration-Water Flow Interactions in Tile Effluent from Manured Land14.55 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms7_til2.DOCEffects of Dairy Manure on Phosphorus Concentrations and Losses in Tile Effluent9.63 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms8_Nlos.docNitrate Dynamics in Fall Creek, New York7.74 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms9_N03.docNitrate movement from field to aquifer to stream, an example from the Harford Teaching and Research Center, Cornell University1.78 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms10_nbl.docNITROGEN BALANCE IN FALL CREEK WATERSHED, 1976 69 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms_11loc.xlsDocuments the stream sampling locations of sub watersheds in Fall Creek22.5 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
ms12_mgm.docData required for developing reliable regulations and guidelines for watershed management in central NY339.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms13_127.DOCLakes and Phosphorus Inputs: a Focus on Management26.11 MBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms14_127.pdfLakes and Phosphorus Inputs: a Focus on Management17.81 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
ms15_ET.DOCEffect of land use change on estimates of evapotranspiration for Fall Creek NY and southern NY based on difference between precipitation and stream discharge, 1926-1993809.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
ms16_slt.docChloride in Fall Creek as influenced by road salt499.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
readme_mss.docBrief descriptions of all the documents in this submission20.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
anscimap.docLocation of sampling sites at Harford T&R center285 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
AS2.XLSData from Harford T&R center; 1972-79 data plus 1972-1994 on page for each location692.5 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
ASN3B.XLSData for uninhabited watersheds161 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
FC_72_79.XLSData for all locations in Fall Creek, 1972 to 1979, includes flow at location 1 at sampling time1.06 MBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
FN7295.XLSAll data for location 1, 1972 to 1995, includes flow at sampling time924.5 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
location.xlsGPS/roadmap location of sampling locations in Fall Creek22.5 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
read_me.docData information19.5 kBMicrosoft WordView/Open
scl.xlsdata for tribs for southern Cayuga Lake. Location ID is on on rhs of Sheet 1, SCL.xls62.5 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
SCLQP.WB2data for tribs for southern Cayuga Lake. Location ID is on on rhs of Sheet 1, SCL.xls634.97 kBLOTUS 1-2-3View/Open
UFC7475.XLSData for Fall Creek above Freeville1.35 MBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
VC7375.XLSData for Virgil Creek, 1973 to 19752.78 MBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open
WESTCL74.XLSData for tribs on west side of Cayuga Lake During the summer of 1974, the average TDP was 0.24 ppm in 13 tributaries along the west side of Cayuga Lake, probably the larger values as compared to Fall Creek, were from point sources such as sewage and milkhouse wastes since the samples were taken during “baseflow conditions”. 24 kBMicrosoft ExcelView/Open

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